France Chapter in The Public-Private Partnership Law Review - edition 9

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In France, public–private partnerships (PPPs) are implemented in various economic sectors (e.g., transport, health, justice, education, urban equipment, environment, energy efficiency, telecommunications and culture), accounting for around €110 billion of activity each year on average.

In 2018, a decision was made to reshape and modernise the French PPP legal framework as legal rules governing this were scattered throughout about 30 different texts. The PPP Code was finally enacted at the end of 2018 through Ordinance No. 2018-1074, dated 26 November 2018, Decree No. 2018-1075, dated 3 December 2018 and Decree No. 2018-1225, dated 24 December 2018. The new PPP Code entered into force on 1 April 2019. Since then, no major change has been brought to this legal framework.

In this chapter, we will focus on the two main forms of PPP implemented in France: concession agreements and partnership contracts.


Reproduced with permission from Law Business Research Ltd. This article was first published in April 2023. For further information please visit:

Lisa Géhin assisted in the development of this publication.

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