European leveraged finance: COVID-19 and the flight to quality
The European leveraged finance market remains resilient after a year of unprecedented hardship, as lenders dissect credits to determine the best possible deals, from pricing to documentary terms
In March 2020, as lockdown restrictions took hold, the European leveraged finance markets ground more or less to a halt. Many feared the worst, as leveraged loan issuance dropped significantly that month and high yield bonds saw virtually no activity at all. Borrowers and lenders alike held their breath, shoring up their finances and waiting to see what might come next. And then, just as quickly, investor sentiment began to improve. By the end of Q2 2020, leveraged loan activity had returned almost to pre-pandemic levels.
And while it slowed somewhat in the latter half of the year, as new waves of COVID-19 swept across the UK and Europe, the final tally was up 11% on the year before—a remarkable achievement, confirming the market’s long-term resilience.
The story in high yield bond markets was equally impressive, ending the year up 10% on 2019 figures, with every indication that it will retain a larger share of the market in the months ahead.
What does all of this mean for 2021?
First and foremost, the influence of COVID-19 will continue to be felt, even as vaccines are rolled out across Europe. Sectors hammered by the first wave—including entertainment and leisure, hospitality, retail, oil & gas and aviation—will struggle to secure financing, having already done what they can to survive. Within those sectors, those that require financing and are able to secure deals are likely to have to pay for the privilege, with leveraged debt either becoming more costly for those whose credit has taken a hit or only being made available on tighter terms.
Second, and in contrast, lenders will turn their attention to high-quality credits or sectors that have found new avenues for growth during COVID-19, such as technology and healthcare.
Third, loan supply will continue to open up—but primarily for those that meet the right criteria. For those well-positioned companies, this flight to quality will continue to offer favourable terms and pricing, and the light-touch covenant packages that were the norm pre-pandemic should remain in place.
At the same time, an anticipated recovery in mergers and acquisitions and leveraged buyout activity will provide an additional lift in the early months of 2021.
And finally, the issues that were front of mind pre-pandemic will continue to influence borrowing and lending decisions, especially environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors—investors will take a positive view of any credits that incorporate ESG criteria in a meaningful way. This will no doubt drive this trend in the months ahead as recovery takes hold and global debt markets return to growth.
- European leveraged loan issuance is up 11% on the previous year to €227.1 billion
- High yield bond issuance is up 10% on 2019 figures to €100.5 billion
- Average yields to maturity on high yield bonds widened from 3.8% to 4.7% in 2020
- Average margins on institutional leveraged loans increased from 338 bps in Q1 2020 to 401 bps in Q4
- Terms will move back in favour of borrowers/issuers (for now)
- Lenders will hold the line in key areas
- Forecasting and structuring will be a post-COVID-19 challenge
- Pricing will continue to bifurcate by sector and rating
- Competition will encourage private debt and syndicated markets to converge
- Private equity deal value in Europe totalled €26.5 billion in Q2 2020, the lowest quarterly figure since Q3 2013
- High yield bond issuance for leveraged buyouts (LBOs) in Europe is up 39% year-on-year to €7.8 billion
- European leveraged loan LBO issuance declined by 6% to €36.8 billion year-on-year
- In March 2020, credit insurer Euler Hermes forecast a 43% increase in insolvencies in the UK in 2021, as well as a 26% uptick in France and 12% in Germany
- By December 2020, ratings agency S&P was forecasting European defaults rising to as much as 8% by the end of 2021
- New issuance of European collateralised loan obligations (CLOs) peaked at just under €4 billion in October 2020 from 12 deals—the highest monthly level since October 2019
- European CLO new issuance declined 26% year-on-year, with refinancing volumes falling from €6 billion in 2019 to zero in 2020
- By the end of March 2020, credit ratings on an estimated 10% of loans held by CLO managers were downgraded or put on notice of downgrade—however, the rate of loan downgrades eased and stabilised in the second half of 2020
- Weighted average bids for healthcare and telecoms credits both priced at approximately 99% of par by the end of 2020
- Entertainment and leisure and retail loans, meanwhile, priced in the 90% to 93% of par range
- Between March and September 2020, only the transport and automotive sectors suffered more ratings downgrades and negative outlook changes than the oil & gas industry
- In the US, leveraged loan issuance for 2020 totalled US$861.7 billion, a 4% year-on-year decline
- The high yield bond market in the US saw a 69% year-on-year increase to US$428.3 billion
- The European leveraged loan market increased by 11% to €227.1 billion year-on-year
- The region's high yield bond market was up 10% to €100.5 billion
- Leveraged loan issuance for European LBOs dropped 6% year-on-year
- High yield LBO issuance, however, was up 39% year-on-year to €7.8 billion
- European direct lending volumes fell from 189 deals in 2019 to 138 deals in 2020
- Ares Management underwrote the largest unitranche on record with the provision of a £1.875 billion financing package for Ardonagh
After years of warnings about maturity walls, impending cliff edges, downturns
and interest rate hikes that failed to emerge, COVID-19 was the event that brought
everything to a temporary standstill—but there's every chance that the markets will
explode with activity in the months ahead